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Title: Judicious use of irrigation and fertilizer in cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa) for better environment in changing scenario
Authors: Kumar, Virendra
Shivay, Y. S
Issue Date: Dec-2009
Publisher: CSIR
Abstract:  In the present era, many developed countries blame to the Asian countries for increase in the global temperature due to rice cultivation. Agriculture contributes approximately 13.5% green house gasses emission at the global level. The maximum area of rice cultivation is in India at global level. In our country rice is being cultivated on an area of 44.0 million hectares (FAI, 2007-08). Rice is not only a food for more than half of the population of India but it is a base for nutritious food. Rice has an important place among the cereal crops. Rice is being cultivated in almost all the states of India, as a main crop. India is one of the main producers and exporter of aromatic rice in the international market. Presently, farmers are facing serious problems pertaining to shortage of energy, increase in agricultural input prices and global climate change. These problems automatically create many other problems. Many problems are arising due to faulty irrigation system and indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizer in the cultivation of rice. Traditional flooding irrigation system and more than required fertilizer uses for the cultivation of rice has become a serious challenge for the environment degradation. Consequently, by the cultivation of rice, the green house gasses emission like methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (NO2) concentrations increase in environment, resulting such ill-effects leading to climate change. The change in the climate is affecting not only the human beings but also other mammals and living beings health adversely. Agricultural scientists, subject matter specialist and farmers of our country need the alternatives for these ill full methods. Therefore, it will lead to lesser green house gasses emission from the rice fields and have lesser harm to the environmental health / degradation and the same time lesser cost of production for rice cultivation so that the future generation will not get only sufficient and quality food along with safe environment to solve the climate change problems. It is better to control pollution at its source, which is a better option. We need to develop improved agricultural technologies, which not only maintain the clean environment but also will continuously improve it. We need to manage irrigation and chemical fertilizer judiciously for the cultivation of rice. In this regard System of Rice Intensification (SRI) technique, aerobic rice cultivation, value added nitrogenous fertilizer and bio-fertilizers can play a crucial role. Therefore, we need to make these technologies popular among the farmers. So that use of these conserved technologies will lead to the better environment and rice cultivation may be more profitable crop.
Page(s): 117-123
ISSN: 0975-2412 (Online); 0771-7706 (Print)
Appears in Collections:BVAAP Vol.17(2) [December 2009]

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