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Title: Silicon – A Versatile Material!
Authors: Dutta, Shankar
Datta, P.
Issue Date: Feb-2010
Publisher: CSIR
Abstract: Silicon is one of man’s most useful elements. Its applications extend from the IC industry to biology and solar cells.
THE ability to fabricate tens of millions of individual components (diodes, transistors etc.) on a minute silicon chip has enabled the modern information age. Now a days the essence of this silicon IC technology is almost a household word. The word ‘Silicon’ originated from silicium (Latin), meaning what was more generally termed as "the flints" or "Hard Rocks". It is an abaundant non-metallic element found throughout the Universe. On earth, silicon is one of the most common elements after oxygen and carbon. It was first discovered as an element by a Swedish chemist named Jacob Berzelius in 1824. He prepared amorphous (non-crystalline) silicon through the heating of sodium (Na) and silicon-tetrafluoride (SiF4). The first crystalline silicon was prepared by Henry Sainte-Claire Deville in 1854. But the popularity of silicon blossomed with the invention of the silicon Integrated Circuit (IC) – a revolutionary concept in the field of electronics. Only a small portion of the total silicon consumption is used up in IC technology. Silicon finds application in many areas starting from steel, alloys, bronzes, solar cell, MEMS to the biomedical sector. Additionally, silicon-based fertilizers have been proved to have plant susceptibility to fight diseases.
Page(s): 40-42
ISSN: 0036-8512
Source:SR Vol.47(02) [February 2010]

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