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Title: Traditional agricultural tools—A review
Authors: Das, P K
Nag, D
Keywords: Traditional agricultural tools
Agricultural tools
Traditional artisans
Issue Date: Jan-2006
Publisher: CSIR
IPC CodeInt. Cl.7: A01B21/00, A01B39/00, A01B39/18, A01B59/00, A01D1/04, E02B11/00, E02B13/00, A01G25/14
Abstract: Agricultural tools are as old as the Stone age. They were required to facilitate working and to increase the productivity of human workers. New tools were developed during copper, bronze and iron ages. Besides stones, other non-metals like wood, leather, bamboo and fibres were used in tools but most of them became extinct with the introduction of iron. Starting with the earliest iron Bakhar blade for tillage in central India after the discovery of iron smelting in mud hearth in Bastar of Chattisgarh state, agricultural tools were designed and produced in scores by village blacksmiths. Some of the hand tools made of iron are now being mass-produced in small-scale industries using modern system of production for economy and quality. All trades of village artisanship in black-smithy, carpentry, cobblery, pottery and other craft in bamboo, stone, etc. contributed to the design and development of agricultural tools through artisan’s ingenuity. Examples have been cited here covering large trades of artisanship. Sickles, Khurpi and other small hand tools were the age-old traditional devices developed by blacksmiths. Carpenters made the counterpoise to lift water from wells to irrigate crops. Big size earthenware was made by potters to store grains for months to be safe from insects and pests. Cobblers were not left behind. They used whole skins of animals to carry water to irrigate horticultural crops besides watering dusty roads. Bamboo craftsman also contributed in developing entire range of food processing and storage structures like sieve to clean grains, baskets to transport and store vegetables, etc. Stones craftsman also made mills to grind wheat to make flours and pulses to make Dhal and similarly mortar and pestle to make paste of spices, etc. Today big mills are making these pastes to re-introduce the traditional taste and flavour of recipes. A dozen of precision hand tools are being manufactured for improved quality and finish by a score of small scale industries; traditional sickles and Khurpi by a million artisan shops in country side and several manual and animal drawn tools by about 18 thousand small industries.
Page(s): 41-46
ISSN: 0975-1068 (Online); 0972-5938 (Print)
Source:IJTK Vol.05(1) [January 2006]

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