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Title: Flavour profiling of apple vermouth using descriptive analysis technique
Authors: Joshi, V K
Sandhu, D K
Keywords: Flavour profiling
Descriptive analysis
Sensory analysis
Apple vermouth
Principal component analysis
Issue Date: Aug-2009
Publisher: CSIR
Series/Report no.: Int. cl.8C12G 1/00
Abstract: Flavour profiling of apple vermouth of different treatments has been evaluated by descriptive analysis. A set of 45 different attributes were used in the experiment. The list of descriptors, concentration of standards and the details of technique has also been described. Based on the flavour profiling, the principal component analysis (PCA) separated the vermouths into groups having vermouths with less than or more than 15% alcohol. PCA was applied to the means of flavour scores generated from flavour profiling. All attributes analyzed across 12 vermouths and the eigen analysis showed that the data were three dimensional. The Ist 3 PCs accounted for the highest variation, with 62.5, 16.5 and 5.6% out of total of 84.5% variation. The PCA has successfully separated the vermouths with 18% alcohol from 12 or 15% alcohol showing the differences in flavour profile of these products due to ethanol content. The Ist PC was defined by astringency, ethyl alcohol, phenolic, amyl alcohol, like plum, grape, apple, apricot, cucumbers, black currant, berry, rose, acetic acid, synthetic, green/unripe, salty, lactic, sulphury and spicy while ethyl acetate, SO2, allspice, musty, cabbage, earthy, sweaty, vinegary, citrus and raisin defined weakly this component. The 2nd PC was defined by acetaldehyde, caramel, sour, fatty acid, rubbery and bitter while metallic taste, sharp, mushroom and yeasty flavours contributed weakly to the 2nd PC. The vermouth of group 1 and 3-9 have been separated from others, based on their richness in apple like, plum like, amyl alcohol, apricot like, ethyl acetate, astringency and phenolic descriptors while these wines were not intense for citrus like, grape like, lactic, cucumbers, black currant, berry like, green/ unripe, salty, soapy, sulphury and vinegary descriptors. Vermouth of 10-12 defined by 2nd PC with flavour tones of acetaldehyde and caramel correlated highly with this PC while these were related weakly with sour, fatty acid, bitter, rubbery and these attributes have been highly related with vermouth of treatment 12. The sugar concentration must have affected other parameters important in sensory qualities such as bitterness. It is concluded that the descriptors described here can characterize apple vermouth of different quality attribute. Descriptive analysis along with PCA could be used for characterizing the product with respect to flavour and as a tool for further improvement in the quality of the product.
Description: 419-425
ISSN: 0975-1092 (Online); 0972-592X (Print)
Appears in Collections:NPR Vol.8(4) [July-August 2009]

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