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Title: Topical immunization: Mechanistic insight and novel delivery systems
Authors: Gupta, Prem N
Singh, P
Mishra, V
Jain, Sanyog
Dubey, P K
Vyas, S P
Keywords: topical immunization
transcutaneous immunization
novel delivery systems
Issue Date: Jan-2004
Publisher: CSIR
Abstract: Topical application of antigen and adjuvant directly on intact skin, termed as Topical Immunization (TI) or Transcutaneous Immunization (TCI), is a novel and emerging method of vaccine delivery because it is safe and convenient. Moreover, skin is potentially rich site for immunization. Immune response elicited by TI depends upon structure and composition of the skin of target species. TI induces potent, functional immune responses vis-à-vis offers significant practical advantages for vaccine delivery. Various routes of carrier entry into the skin include the intercellular pathway, the transcorneocyte pathway and the trans-appandageal pathway. Among various approaches for topical immunization, namely physical, chemical and vesicular, latter is gaining wide attention. Vesicular carriers, i.e. liposome, niosome, transfersomes and virosome, elicit immune response by different mechanisms. Some lipids directly lower the skin permeability barrier, which resides primarily in the stratum corneum. Hence, specially designed lipid vesicles, used as topical delivery system, are attracting increasing attention and can be used for TI. The review covers brief immunology of skin and an insight into delivery concepts of topical immunization with emphasis on vesicular systems.
Page(s): 9-21
ISSN: 0975-0967 (Online); 0972-5849 (Print)
Source:IJBT Vol.03(1) [January 2004]

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