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|Title:||Mitochondrial citrulline synthesis from ammonia and glutamine in the liver of ureogenic air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus)|
|Authors:||Kharbuli, Zaiba Y.|
|Keywords:||Carbamyl phosphate synthetase;Carbonic anhydrase;Ornithine urea cycle;Succinate;Ureogenesis|
|Abstract:||The possible synthesis of citrulline, a rate limiting step for urea synthesis via the ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) in teleosts was tested both in the presence of ammonia and glutamine as nitrogen-donating substrates by the isolated liver mitochondria of ureogenic air-breathing walking catfish, C. batrachus. Both ammonia and glutamine could be used as nitrogen-donating substrates for the synthesis of citrulline by the isolated liver mitochondria, since the rate of citrulline synthesis was almost equal in presence of both the substrates. The citrulline synthesis by the isolated liver mitochondria requires succinate at a concentration of 0.1 mM as an energy source, and also requires the involvement of intramitochondrial carbonic anhydrase activity for supplying HCO3¯ as another substrate for citrulline synthesis. The rate of citrulline synthesis was further stimulated significantly by the isolated liver mitochondria of the fish after pre-exposure to 25 mM NH4Cl for 7 days. Due to possessing this biochemical adaptational strategy leading to the amelioration of ammonia toxicity mainly by channeling ammonia directly and/or via the formation of glutamine to the OUC, this air-breathing catfish could succeed in surviving in high external ammonia, which it faces in its natural habitat in certain seasons of the year.|
|ISSN:||0975-1009 (Online); 0019-5189 (Print)|
|Appears in Collections:||IJEB Vol.45(12) [December 2007]|
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