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Title: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD): A current review of assessment, risk factors and prevention
Authors: Balaji, G
Sinha, Sukesh Narayan
Keywords: Autism;Risk factors;Screening tools;Serotonin reuptake inhibitors
Issue Date: Dec-2018
Publisher: NISCAIR-CSIR, India
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are extremely heritable neurodevelopmental disorders observed in 1-2% of children, usually seen before they reach 3 years of age. ASD is characterized by impaired social behavior, poor communication, stereotypic behavior, abnormal sensitivity to sensory stimuli and self-injurious behavior. The exact causes of ASD are unclear but increased oxidative stress; hyperserotonemia and loss of purkinje cell integrity in the cerebellum are some pathological findings in ASD. This article reviews trends in assessment of this neurodevelopmental disorder, autism risk factors, and preventions for autism. Screening tools for ASD, such as checklist for autism in toddlers (CHAT), modified checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT), autism behavior checklist (ABC) and the autism spectrum screening questionnaire (ASSQ), social communication questionnaire (SCQ), australian scale for asperger syndrome (ASAS), are available for use by general pediatricians. Pregnant ladies exposure to some toxic chemicals and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may increase the risk of ASDs. Mother and child cohort study (MoBa) found prenatal folic acid supplements reduce the risk of autism spectrum disorders in children, but these findings cannot determine whether they protect against other neurodevelopmental disorders.
Page(s): 375-383
ISSN: 0975-0959 (Online); 0301-1208 (Print)
Appears in Collections:IJBB Vol.55(6) [December 2018]

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