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|Title:||Time course of pulmonary pathology, cytokine influx and their correlation on augmentation of antigen challenge by influenza A virus infection|
Influenza A virus
|Abstract:||A murine model of influenza A virus exacerbation of allergen induced airway inflammation, pulmonary histopathological changes, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis, cytokine influx and the time course of these events have been studied. The present study was undertaken to determine the relative contributions of Th1/Th2 cytokines to the histopathological changes in the lungs observed at 9, 12, 24 and 48 hr following antigen challenge in mice previously immunized with influenza A virus. BALF analysis of acute phase group revealed statistically significant increase in neutrophils at 9 hr, macrophages at 12 hr, lymphocytes and eosinophils at 24 hr, as compared to OVA-sensitized control mice. These changes were associated with an alteration in the levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-γ. A peak of IL-4 at 24 hr significantly enhanced bronchiolar and perivascular histopathology, whereas increased IL-5 level peaking at 24 hr was correlated with the enhanced infiltration of eosinophils in both BALF and lung tissue. There was simultaneous depletion of IL-10 an anti-inflammatory cytokine leading to persistence of pulmonary inflammation in case of acute phase group. Histopathology at 24 and 48 hr showed severe denudation of bronchiolar lining epithelium surrounded by dense chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Chronic interstitial infiltrate with focal loss of architecture, marked oedema, extravasation of RBCs from congested blood vessels and laying down of reticulin fibres was observed in acute phase. Thus, infection with influenza A virus on pre-existing asthmatic immunopathology elicits a cascade of Th2 cytokines with influx of inflammatory cells in BALF, mucosal and interstitial inflammation leading to asthma exacerbations|
|Appears in Collections:||IJEB Vol.46(03) [March 2008]|
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