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|Title:||The Yin-Yang of TNF⍺ in the guinea pig model of tuberculosis|
|Authors:||Ly, Lan H|
McMurray, David N
<i style="">Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i>
|Abstract:||Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-⍺) is a prototypic pro-inflammatory cytokine that has a central role in the initial host response to <i style="">Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> infection. It is a key player in granuloma formation, macrophage activation, bacterial killing, and pathology <i style="">in vivo</i>. However, the exact mechanism has not been completely understood. This review summarizes the TNFa data acquired from the ‘gold standard’ guinea pig animal model of tuberculosis. While production of TNF⍺ is widely accepted as beneficial to the host response, we have found that this hypothesis is just one side of the story. TNF⍺ can up-regulate and down-regulate some key pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFNg, IL-12p40) and differentially modulate macrophage activation and intracellular bacterial growth. Neutralization of TNF⍺ <i style="">in vivo</i> allows an anti-inflammatory TGFb-mediated response to develop. Furthermore, BCG vaccination modulates TNF⍺ responses directly in the pulmonary granulomas to reduce tissue damage. The bipolar nature of TNF⍺ should be considered as knowledge of this critical molecule continues to grow.|
|Appears in Collections:||IJEB Vol.47(06) [June 2009]|
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