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|Title:||Long-term variations of solar, interplanetary, geomagnetic indices and comic ray intensities—A brief tutorial|
|Authors:||Kane, R P|
|Keywords:||Solar indices;Geomagnetic index;Sunspots;Cosmic ray intensity;Interplanetary magnetic field.|
|Abstract:||The long-term variations of the 12-month running means of several solar, interplanetary and geomagnetic parameters during the last several sunspot cycles revealed that during cycles 11-23 (1868-2004), the geomagnetic ⍺⍺ index showed several peaks within 3-5 years around the sunspot maxima, with some peaks during the declining phases of the sunspot cycles, whereas the sunspot numbers Rz showed smooth but broad maxima for 2-3 years in each cycle. The calcium plage area also showed multiple peaks but none in the declining phases. The 11-yr running means showed very good parallelism between Rz, ⍺⍺ index and global sea-surface temperature (SST). During 1940-2004, Rz and F10 (2800 MHz radio emission) showed similar 11-yr fluctuations of varying amplitudes, but coronal index, CI, showed monotonically increasing amplitudes by almost a factor of two. The open magnetic flux emanating from the sun during 1968-2004 showed long-term fluctuations, very different at low and high solar latitudes. The variations of the fluxes at low latitude (0-45o) were almost parallel to the sunspot cycle (there was a slight N-S asymmetry), while fluxes at high latitudes (45o-90o) were almost anti-parallel to the sunspot cycle. Cosmic ray neutron monitor intensities at Climax were well anti-correlated with sunspot cycle and interplanetary magnetic field (B), but poorly correlated with interplanetary number density (N), solar wind speed (V), and geomagnetic index ⍺⍺. The geomagnetic index ⍺⍺ was best correlated with the product VB.|
|Appears in Collections:||IJRSP Vol.35(5) [October 2006]|
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