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|Title:||Physical, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic studies of uroliths|
|Keywords:||Urinary calculi;Scanning electron microscopy;X-ray diffraction;Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy|
|Abstract:||Identification of chemical constituents of calculus is important in the diagnosis and management of urolithiasis. The compositional variability of uroliths has different etiologies and requires various modes of treatment and prophylaxis. In the present study, we report the chemical compositional analyses of calculi recovered from buck and bullock by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques and ultra-structure examination by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD and EDX investigations conclusively established the chemical compositions of urinary calculi under investigation. The calculus from buck (sample I) had calcium oxalate monohydrate, a dominant salt phase and magnesium compound in significant amount. The calculus from bullock (sample II) had magnesium ammonium phosphate phase, with significant amount of calcium in apatite form and K+ ions. SEM study at higher magnification (X1000) showed bipyramidal crystals in external zones of urolith (sample I). The struvite apatite calculus showed that basic unit of structure was lamination and the laminitis appeared to be made up of fine granules and high porosity. The bio-mineralization process of calculus formation was also studied, with a view to take preventive and therapeutic measures for amelioration of urinary stone diseases in animals and humans.|
|Appears in Collections:||IJBB Vol.43(4) [August 2006]|
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