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|Title:||High mode contamination of multi-drug resistant bacteria in Kolkata: Mechanism of gene activation and remedy by heterogeneous phyto-antibiotics|
|Authors:||Chakraborty, Asit Kumar|
|Keywords:||Ayurvedic composition;Heterogeneous phyto-antibiotics;Kolkata water-bodies;Mdr-genes activation;Mdr-pathogenesis;Microbial contamination|
|Abstract:||Multi-drug resistant (mdr) microbes have been found responsible for various infections in human and animals with incidence rates increasing significantly over the past decade. These bacteria were resistant to multiple groups of antibiotics because of activation of drug efflux mechanisms involving AcrA-AcrB-TolC and ABC-transporter genes as well as the specific antibiotic inactivating genes like bla, aac, aph, aad, qnr, cat, sul and neo. In the present study, a wide spread contamination of mdr-bacteria in Kolkata water bodies, Ganga river water and pure rain water were detected. A few Gram-negative mdr-bacteria were isolated resistant to at least four different groups of antibiotics, comprising ampicillin, cefotaxime, imipenem, azithromycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and neomycin. The inhibition was tested by agar cup diffusion method, paper disk diffusion method and in vitro method. Although high mode contamination of penicillin drug resistant (35-40%) bacterial species was observed, 3rd generation cephalosporins (cefotaxime or ceftriaxone) resiatant species were found in much less percentage (< 5%). Restriction analysis, Pulsed field gel electrophoresis and PCR using bla, cmr, tet and acr genes specific primers indicated that huge nano-chromosome amplification was a prerequisite change in those microbes. Interestingly, massive tet and acrA gene amplifications were detected, suggesting activation of proton-drug efflux mechanism rather than β-lactamase gene activation as reported earlier. Further, a composition (mdr-cure) consisting organic extract of Cassia fistula, Brassica campestris, Suregada multiflora, Chenopodium album and Terminalia chebula was described that killed the isolated mdr-bacteria efficiently and also cured the nail and skin infections. The potency of cure was enhanced by adding traditional antioxidant and anti-inflammatory principles from Neem and Haldi. This is the first report on isolation and characterization of non-clinical, mdr Enterobacteriaceae that are contaminated in the environment of Kolkata. This may also be a cause of concern to International travellers visiting South-Asian countries. The ayurvedic phyto-extracts described here could be a solution globally to combat mdr-pathogenesis.|
|ISSN:||0975-0967 (Online); 0972-5849 (Print)|
|Appears in Collections:||IJBT Vol.14(2) [April 2015]|
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