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Title: Recent advances in diagnosis of HIV and future prospects
Authors: Arya, Swati
Lal, Pooja
Singh, Pamela
Kumar, Ashok
Keywords: AIDS;Biosensors;ELISA;HIV;HIV diagnosis;RNA sensor
Issue Date: Jan-2015
Publisher: NISCAIR-CSIR, India
Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major cause of death globally. It causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) characterized by relentless destruction of human immune system. HIV is a retrovirus that primarily infects the CD4 presenting cells of human immune system, such as, macrophages and dendritic cells. People die of AIDS because the disease remains undetectable for a long time after the initial viral infection. Hence, a simple, accurate and economical technique is required to detect HIV in early stage of infection with high specificity and sensitivity. Presently, HIV is diagnosed by various immunological and molecular techniques, such as, ELISA, rapid tests, Western blot, indirect immunoassay, radioimmuno-precipitation, line immunoassay and nucleic acid based tests. The current methods are non-confirmatory because of certain limitations, which further requires other confirmatory tests. In recent years, research has been focused on alternative methods to improve diagnosis of HIV. HIV biosensor based on specific gene will be rapid, sensitive and specific confirmatory test and can save life of several patients. The present review highlights and updates present technologies and progress in new approaches for the diagnosis of HIV with merits and demerits of present technologies.
Page(s): 9-18
ISSN: 0975-0967 (Online); 0972-5849 (Print)
Appears in Collections:IJBT Vol.14(1) [January 2015]

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