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|Title:||Regulation of Cardiac β3-Adrenergic Receptors in Hyperglycemia|
|Keywords:||β-Blockers;β-Adrenoceptor subtypes;Heart function;Oxidative stress;Diabetes mellitus|
|Abstract:||Beta-adrenoceptors (β-AR), members of the G protein-coupled receptors play important roles in the regulation of heart function. A positive inotropic action of catecholamines is mediated through their interaction with β-AR, located on the sarcolemma, while they can also mediate some deleterious effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias or myocardial apoptosis. The well-known β-AR-associated signaling in heart is composed of a coupled mechanism among both β1- and β2-AR and stimulatory G protein (Gs). This coupled mechanism further leads to the activation of adenylyl cyclase and thereby increases in intracellular cAMP level. However, recent studies have emphasized the contribution of constitutive β3-AR coupling to Gi proteins, thereby initiating additional signal transduction pathways, particularly under physiopathological conditions. Diabetic cardiomyopathy, as a distinct entity is recognized due to its diminished responsiveness to β1-AR agonist stimulation in the heart from diabetic rats with no important changes in the responses mediated with β2-AR. Furthermore, an upregulation of β3-AR has been shown in diabetic rat heart with a strong negative inotropic effect on left ventricular function. Experimental data provide evidences that the mechanisms for the negative inotropic effect with β3-AR activation appear to involve a pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G protein and the activation of a nitric oxide synthase pathway. On the other hand, β-blockers demonstrate marked beneficial effects in heart dysfunction with scavenging free radicals and/or acting as an antioxidant with both sex- and dose-dependent manner. However, further investigations are needed to clarify the roles of both altered expression and/or responsiveness of β-AR and the benefits with β-blocker treatment in diabetes. This review discusses the role of β-AR activation, particularly β3-AR in cardiac pathological remodeling under hyperglycemia.|
|ISSN:||0975-0959 (Online); 0301-1208 (Print)|
|Appears in Collections:|| IJBB Vol.51(6) [December 2014]|
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