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Title: Trace gases behaviour in sensitive areas of the northwestern Himalaya–A case study of Kullu-Manali tourist complex, India
Authors: Kuniyal, Jagdish C
Rao, P S P
Momin, G A
Safai, P D
Tiwari, S
Ali, K
Keywords: Surface ozone;Nitrogen dioxide;Sulphur dioxide;Kullu-Manali;Northwestern Himalaya
Issue Date: Jun-2007
Publisher: CSIR
Abstract: Surface concentration of the three important trace gases, ozone (O₃), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and sulphur dioxide (SO₂) were measured at three different tourist locations, namely Kullu, Manali and Kothi in the northwestern Himalayan region, which are located at 1220 m, 2050 m and 2530 m above the mean sea level mainly to asses the anthropogenic impact. The surface O₃ was monitored for four years during the period 1998 - 2002 and 2004 at the time of peak tourist season (May-June), and SO₂ and NO₂ were measured during the entire period in 2003. The peak O₃ concentrations reached close to 50 ppb level, while the annual mean concentrations of O₃, SO₂ and NO₂ remained within the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA’s) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The peak hourly average values of O₃ was 44 ppb at Manali and 32 ppb at Kothi during evening (1700 hrs IST), while that at Mohal (near Kullu) was 32 ppb in the afternoon (1500 hrs IST) period. The seasonally average value of maximum concentration of NO₂ was 3.8±0.6 μg m⁻³at Kothi and 7.6±1.0 μg m⁻³ at Mohal in autumn (October-November), while that of SO₂ was 21.4±1.8 μg m⁻³ at Kothi and 18.8±1.3 μg m⁻³ at Mohal during the monsoon (July-September) and summer (April-June) periods, respectively. Vehicular emissions and biomass burning for heating and cooking during the winter period (especially when power failure is common) as well as during forest fires could be the major contributors for increased emissions of these trace gases. However, the influence of long-range transport may also be important.
Page(s): 197-203
ISSN: 0367-8393
Appears in Collections:IJRSP Vol.36(3) [June 2007]

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