Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nopr.niscair.res.in/handle/123456789/27050
Title: Multidimensional Medicinal uses of Bioactive Molecules obtained from Plants, Animals & Microorganisms
Authors: Tripathi, Nimisha
Tripathi, Prem Shankar Mani
Gupta, Asha
Misra, P.K.
Singh, Rajshekhar
Veerendra, Kumar
Issue Date: Jun-2003
Publisher: NISCAIR-CSIR, India
Abstract: Bioactive molecules are the chemicals present in living systems, which are known for their diversified uses in the society. The beneficial attributes of biologically active molecules in the development of new drugs have been known since time immemorial and are still being searched. After the isolation of penicillin from the bacterium Penicillium notatum in 1939, various diverse types of organisms, including plants, animals, fungi and microorganisms like bacteria have attracted the attention of scientists to contribute towards this search. Albeit the microorganisms were ignored previously, but now-a-days these are intensively being studied and their secondary metabolites are being used for drug preparation on a large scale. These natural products are the most successful source of drug as they offer opportunities for finding novel low molecular weight structures, which are active against a wide range of assay targets. The important aspects of chemicals in living systems, their occurrence, isolation and identification are of immense value for their role in society over the ages. The most interesting aspect of biologically active molecules is that the knowledge of macromolecular structure and the modes of action of these biologically active small molecules can be exploited in designing new molecules with potent biological activity (i.e., the drugs).
The principal natural products with target molecules include brevetoxins, oligosaccharides, enediyne anticancer agents, DNA-interacting molecules, cholesterol-lowering compounds, taxoids, antibiotics, and anti-AIDS and other bioactive molecules. Likewise, secondary metabolites like macrolides, alkaloids, terpenes are also being isolated from the living organisms and are used in combating several dreaded fatal diseases, even cancer. More interestingly, secondary metabolites of bacterial, fungal and marine origin are being intensively studied, besides plants and animals. In the present review paper, beneficial aspects of various bioactive molecules present in plants, animals and microorganisms have been reviewed. In this context, it is more important and interesting that the secondary metabolites derived from bacteria, fungi and marine organisms are also being studied besides those obtained from plants and animals. Alkaloids (which include opiate and tropane), hallucinogens, taxol and digitalis are most important among these. Remarkable progress has also been reported in the field of manufacturing of medicine from bioactive molecules by isolating them from Rauwolfia, Pyote, Podophyllum, Taxus (common yew tree). In the same stream, bioactive molecules present in animals are also being researched and the bioactive molecules present in these animals, especially insects, arc being extensively exploited for their medicinal value. The animals of this category include maggots of some special varieties of flies, honeybee, blister beetle, bed hugs, etc. Useful bioactive molecules have also been characterized in microorganisms, especially myxobacteria. Also known as gliding bacteria, these bacteria are in fact soil bacteria which make fruiting bodies. Likewise, various bio molecules with new structures, such as ratjadones, sorangicines, soraphenes, epothiones, etc. are being isolated from these extraordinary bacteria and their use in the synthesis of medicines is increasing day-by-day. Among these, epothiones are most effectively being used in the treatment of cancer. Thus understanding the multifaceted uses of the bioactive molecules isolated from plants, animals and microorganisms, several research institutes of India, which is rich in biodiversity, are carrying out extensive research , but more attention is needed and possibilities are broad and bright. Given in the present paper is an overview of the beneficial aspects of various bioactive molecules present in plants, animals and microorganisms. In this context, it is more important and interesting that the secondary metabolites derived from bacteria, fungi and marine organisms are also being studied besides those obtained from plants and animals. Alkaloids (which include opiate and tropane), hallucinogens, taxol and digitalis are most important among these. Remarkable progress has also been reported in the field of manufacturing of medicine from bioactive molecules by isolating them from Rauwolfia, Pyote, Podophyllum, and Taxus, Likewise, bioactive molecules present in animals are, of late, also being researched extensively. The bioactive molecules present in animals, especially insects, are being gainfully exploited for their medicinal value. The animals of this category include maggots of some special varieties of flies, honeybee, blister beetle, bed bugs, etc. Useful bioactive molecules have also been characterized in microorganisms, especially myxobacteria. Also known as gliding bacteria, they are, in fact, soil bacteria, which make fruiting bodies. Similary, various bioactive molecules with new structures, such as ratjadones, sorangicines, soraphenes, epothiones, etc. are being isolated from these extraordinary bacteria and their use in the synthesis of medicines is increasing day-by-day. Among these, epothiones are most effectively being used in the treatment of cancer. Thus, exploiting country's rich biodiversity, research efforts, with focussed attention, are being intensified for isolating and understanding the multifarious uses of bioactive molecules derived from plants, animals and microorganisms, in India. The scope is unlimited and possibilities are enormous.
Page(s): 20-26
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/27050
ISSN: 0975-2412 (Online); 0771-7706 (Print)
Appears in Collections:BVAAP Vol.11(1) [June 2003]

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