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|Title:||Biotechnological Application of Psychrophiles and Their Habitat to Low-Temperature|
|Authors:||Ramana, K V|
Dhaked, R K
|Abstract:||Microorganims living in extreme environments are divided into five categories thermophiles, psychrophiles, alkaliphiles, acidophiles and halophiles. Environments that are considered to be extreme are colonized by these special microorganisms which are adapted to these ecological niches. The application of psychrophilic microorganisms in industrial processes opens up a new era in biotechnology.Due to its unique biochemical features, it can be exploited for use in biotechnological industries busy in manufacturing food, enzymes, and value added pharmaceuticals products. Recent developments show that psychrophiles are good source of novel catalysts of industrial interest. Some of the enzymes have been isolated and the genes are successfully cloned and expressed in target hosts. Biopolymer degrading enzymes like amylase, pullulanases, xylanases, and proteases play an important role in food, detergents, and pulp industries. Cell membranes of psychrophiles contain surfactants bearing unique stability at low temperatures and that can be used in pharmaceutical formulation. The cold adaptation process of psychrophiles encompasses wide modifications in structure and molecular architecture, physiology, and biochemistry of these organisms. These are described, in detail, here.|
|ISSN:||0975-1084 (Online); 0022-4456 (Print)|
|Appears in Collections:||JSIR Vol.59(02) [February 2000]|
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