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Title: Malignant transformation of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells in culture by malachite green: An agent of environniental importance
Authors: Mahudawala, Daisy M
Redkar, Alka A
Wagh, Ashwiny
Gladstone, Betty
Rao, K V K
Issue Date: Sep-1999
Publisher: NISCAIR-CSIR, India
Abstract: Malachite green (MG), consisting of green crystals with a metallic lustre, is very soluble in water and is highly cytotoxic to mammalian cells in culture and also acts as a liver tumour promoter. In view of its industrial importance and possible exposure to human beings, MG poses a potential environmental health hazard. Accordingly, we have studied the effect of MG on the formation of free radicals using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) analysis with 5, 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) as-a spin trapping agent. ESR analysis showed formation of reactive free radicals during exposure of MG to Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. As per mechanism-based toxicology in cancer risk assessment, the chemicals that have the potential to be metabolized to active free radical species could be human cancer hazards. So, we have investigated the effect of MG on the formation of Type II and Type III morphologically transformed foci using SHE cell transformation assay. MG induced dose related transformed foci. Some of these transformed foci were taken out using selective trypsinisation and established immortal cell lines. One of these immortal cell lines was characterized extensively. This immortal cell line showed enhanced DNA synthesis in the form of BrdU incorporation, increased presence of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), bcl-2 and p53 proteins by immunohistochemistry. When these immortal cells were injected subcutaneously into nude mice, they developed tumors which were transplantable and histopathologically sarcomas. The present studies indicate that MG could be a potential candidate for two year chemical carcinogenesis rodent bioassays.
Page(s): 904-918
ISSN: 0975-1009 (Online); 0019-5189 (Print)
Appears in Collections: IJEB Vol.37(09) [September 1999]

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