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|Title:||Impact of Industrial Effluents on Soil Health and Agriculture - Indian Experience: Part I - Distillery and Paper Mill Effluents|
|Abstract:||The disposal of industrial effluents is a problem of increasing importance throughout the world. In India, a huge amount of waste water generated from distillery and paper industries is discharged on land or into the running water. Distillery waste water is characterized by low pH, high BOD and COD values and contains a high percentage of organic and inorganic materials. This waste water also contains considerable amounts of elements like N, P, K, Ca and S. The paper mill effluents are characterized by high values of BOD, COD and wide range of pH, depending upon the source of origin. The N, P and K contents are lower as compared to those in distillery waste waters. Impact of use of these effluents on soil, plant and waterbodies is discussed. Use of distillery effluents indicates a significant increase in electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon, exchangeable Na as well as available N, P and K in soils. Similarly, pH, organic carbon, cation-exchange capacity, available N, P, K and micronutrient contents of soils irrigated with paper factory effluents are reported to be increased. Besides, the use of this waste water increases the exchangeable Na content of soils. Some of the field crops show positive response to post-methanation effluent application with irrigation water. Paper mill effluents are found to adversely affect the seed germination and seedling growth of various crops, whereas, these aspects of crops are stimulated due to the application of these effluents after proper dilution. Increase in organic load, depletion of oxygen content and destruction of aquatic life in water course are some of the major problems created due to disposal of these effluents in river. Methods of control and treatment of these effluents are indicated. Manurial potential , strategies and constraints of utilization of these industrial effluents in agriculture are mentioned.|
|ISSN:||0975-1084 (Online); 0022-4456 (Print)|
|Appears in Collections:||JSIR Vol.59(05) [May 2000]|
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