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|Title:||Antituberculosis drug-induced hepatitis: Risk factors, prevention and management|
Husain, S A
|Keywords:||Antituberculosis drug;Drug-induced hepatitis;Hepatic drug metabolism;Idiosyneratic hepatotoxins;Isoniazid, Rifampicin;Viral hepatitis|
|Abstract:||Apart from infectious or viral hepatitis, other most common non-infectious causes of hepatitis are alcohol, cholestatic, drugs and toxic malerials. The most common mode that leads lo liver injuries is antituberculosis drug- induced hepatitis. The severity of drug- induced liver injury varies from minor nonspecific changes in the hepatic structure to fulminant hepatic failure, cirrhosis and liver cancer. Patients receiving antitubercular drug frequently develop acute or chronic hepatitis. The time required for the metabolites to reach hepatotoxic levels is much earlier with isoniazid plus rifampicin treatment than isoniazid alone and this has been shown to be synergistic rather than additive. Antituberculosis drug (ATT)- inducible cytochrome P-4502E1 (CYP2E1) is constitutively expressed in the liver. Recent studies show that polymororphism of the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genes and glutathione-S-transferase (GST ) are the major susceptibility risk factors for ATT induced hepatitis. The hepatic NAT and GST are involved in the metabolism of several carcinogenic arylamines and drugs. The NAT2 enzyme has a genetic polymorphism in human. N- acetyltransferase 2 genes (NAT2) have been identified to be responsible for genetic polymorphism of slow and rapid acetylation in humans. Slow acetylators of NAT2 prove to develop more severe hepatotoxicity than rapid acetylators making it a significant risk factor. Deficiency of GST activity, because of homozygous null mutations at GSTM1 and GSTT1 loci, may modulate susceptibility to drug and xenobiotic –induced hepatotoxicity, polymorphisms at GSTM1, GSTT1 and NAT2 loci had been linked to various forms of liver injury, including hepatocellular carcinoma.|
|ISSN:||0975-1009 (Online); 0019-5189 (Print)|
|Appears in Collections:||IJEB Vol.41(11) [November 2003]|
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