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Title: Choice of cyclodextrin for cellular cholesterol depletion for vascular endothelial cell lipid raft studies: Cell membrane alterations, cytoskeletal reorganization and cytotoxicity
Authors: Hinzey, Adam H
Kline, Michelle A
Kotha, Sainath R
Sliman, Sean M
Butler, Elizabeth S O' Connor
Shelton, Andrew B
Gurney, Travis R
Parinandi, Narasimham L
Keywords: Membrane cholesterol
Lipid rafts
Vascular endothelial cells
Cytoskeletal reorganization
Issue Date: Oct-2012
Publisher: NISCAIR-CSIR, India
Abstract: The use of cyclodextrins as tools to establish the role of cholesterol rafts in cellular functions has become a widely accepted procedure. However, the adverse effects of cyclodextrins as the cholesterol-depleting agents on cellular structure and functions are not reported in detail. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated the membrane-perturbing actions and cytotoxicity of the two widely used cellular cholesterol-depleting cyclodextrins methyl-b-cyclodextrin (MbCD) and hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin (HPCD) in our well-established bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell (BPAEC) in vitro model system. BPAECs treated with different concentrations of MβCD and HPCD (2% and 5%, wt/vol.) for 15-180 min showed significant loss of membrane cholesterol, cytotoxicity, cell morphology alterations, actin cytoskeletal reorganization, alterations in cellular proteins and membrane fatty acid composition, and decrease in trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TER). MbCD induced a marked loss of cellular proteins, as compared to that caused by HPCD under identical conditions. More noticeably, MbCD caused a drastic loss of membrane lipid fatty acids in BPAECs, as compared to HPCD which failed to cause such alteration. Removal of cholesterol by cyclodextrin (especially MβCD) treatment apparently caused loss of fluidity of the cell membrane and leakage of vital cellular molecules including proteins and fatty acids, and thus caused cytotoxicity and loss of cell morphology in BPAECs. Replenishment of cells with cholesterol following its depletion by MbCD treatment significantly attenuated the depletion of cellular cholesterol, cytotoxicity and morphological alterations in BPAECs, indicating the importance of membrane cholesterol in vascular EC integrity. Also, the current study offered a safer method of cholesterol removal from membranes and lipid rafts by HPCD, suggesting its use in studies to investigate the role of lipid raft-associated cholesterol in cellular functions.
Page(s): 329-341
CC License:  CC Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.5 India
ISSN: 0975-0959 (Online); 0301-1208 (Print)
Source:IJBB Vol.49(5) [October 2012]

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