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Title: Critical issues in water resource management of Haryana State, India : Geoinformatics is the solution
Authors: Chaudhary, B S
Issue Date: Jun-2012
Publisher: NISCAIR-CSIR, India
Abstract: The pressure on water resource availability is continuously increasing due to population explosion, industrialization, urbanization and climatic vagaries. Geoinformation technology which emphasizes on the synergistic use of Geographical Information System (GIS), space based Remote Sensing (RS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can easily help in tackling such problems in a better, faster, economic and more efficient manner. These techniques have an edge over the conventional methods due to the advantages of synoptic view, repetitive coverage, and multi resolution satellite data. This helps us in generation of water resources information on various scales. The effective planning for water resources conservation and management at district level can be made if the data is generated on 1:50,000 scale by using medium resolution satellite images. Haryana state may be divided in to three basins, namely the Yamuna basin, the Ghaggar basin and internal basin which are parts of Ganges and Indus system. In northern Haryana, the land area slopes from northeast to southwest, whereas in south, it slopes from southwest to northeast. This makes almost a latitudinal depression along Sirsa-Fatehabad-Hisar-Jind-Rohtak-Delhi axis. This saucer shaped physiography of the state is responsible for many problems related to water resources along this central axis. The ground water conditions in northern and southern parts of the state are fresh but facing the problem of water level decline due to over exploitation for intensive agriculture purposes. As a result, at present Haryana have problems of over drafting of fresh quality water in northern and southern districts and excessive canal irrigation in the areas of poor/ marginal ground water conditions due to highly water intensive & multiple cropping systems as a result of green revolution. This is creating the two diverse problems that of ground water table declining in the northern and southern part whereas the water logging and salinity in the central portion. This calls for integrated study of water resources in the state for its sustained use.
    Looking to the benefits of Geoinformatics technology a number of projects have been taken up in the state by various organizations. The present paper discusses the preparation of ground water prospects maps in various parts of Haryana state on one side and the site selection for artificial recharge of ground water in some other parts. Firstly, Hydrogeomorphological maps on 1:50,000 scale showing different ground water prospect zones are prepared for different districts in Haryana State, India. These depict ground water worthy features. This information has been supplemented with the available inputs from existing sources about the depth to water level and ground water quality etc. The othermaps such as land use/ land cover, geomorphology, drainage/ canal network and soils etc have also been consulted for preparing water resources action plan. The maps thus prepared depict different units for further ground water prospecting. The surface water resources action plan maps have been prepared by integrating geomorphology, slope, drainage, soil maps and various sites have been suggested for site specific water resources conservation measures such check dams/ gully plugging, earthen dams etc. The information thus developed has been submitted to various departments involved in the planning and management of natural resources in the state for further implementation of the activities suggested in different areas.
Page(s): 126-130
ISSN: 0975-2412 (Online); 0771-7706 (Print)
Appears in Collections:BVAAP Vol.20(1) [June 2012]

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