NISCAIR Online Periodicals Repository

NISCAIR ONLINE PERIODICALS REPOSITORY (NOPR)  >
NISCAIR PUBLICATIONS >
Research Journals >
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT) >
IJBT Vol.10 [2011] >
IJBT Vol.10(4) [October 2011] >


Title: Enzymatic detoxification of O2 and NO in the human parasite, Giardia intestinalis: A mini review
Authors: Testa, Fabrizio
Giuffrè, Alessandro
Mastronicola, Daniela
Forte, Elena
Sarti, Paolo
Keywords: Flavodiiron protein
Flavohemoglobin
Giardia intestinalis
NADH-oxidase
Stress response
Issue Date: Oct-2011
Publisher: NISCAIR-CSIR, India
Abstract: Giardia intestinalis is the etiological agent of giardiasis, a common human intestinal disease with 280 million cases per year. Giardiasis is typically treated with the broad-range antibiotic metronidazole; however, the emergence of drug-resistant strains calls for the development of new anti-parasitic drugs. Very little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms adopted by Giardia to cope with the oxidative/nitrosative environmental stress, encountered by the parasite during colonization of the human intestine. Giardia is particularly sensitive to oxidative stress, as it lacks some of the most common ROS-detoxifying enzymes and it is endowed with O2-labile key metabolic enzymes. Surprisingly, it colonizes a fairly aerobic (up to 50 M O2) tract of the human gut (the upper part of the small intestine). Accordingly, survival of the parasite relies on antioxidant systems, though, as yet, the only two H2O-forming and O2-consuming enzymes described in Giardia are NADH oxidase and flavodiiron protein (FDP). Nitric oxide (NO) is an antimicrobial agent produced, together with ROS, by the host immune system to fight pathogens. In vitro NO-stress has been reported to have cytostatic, rather than cytotoxic, effects on Giardia. This effect leads to the suggestion that Giardia is endowed with defense mechanisms against NO and, very recently, the NO-detoxifying flavohemoglobin from it has been characterized.
Page(s): 404-409
CC License:  CC Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.5 India
ISSN: 0975-0967 (Online); 0972-5849 (Print)
Source:IJBT Vol.10(4) [October 2011]

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
IJBT 10(4) 404-409.pdf124.12 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
 Current Page Visits: 431 
Recommend this item

 

National Knowledge Resources Consortium |  NISCAIR Website |  Contact us |  Feedback

Disclaimer: NISCAIR assumes no responsibility for the statements and opinions advanced by contributors. The editorial staff in its work of examining papers received for publication is helped, in an honorary capacity, by many distinguished engineers and scientists.

CC License Except where otherwise noted, the Articles on this site are licensed under Creative Commons License: CC Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.5 India

Copyright © 2012 The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. All rights reserved.

Powered by DSpace Copyright © 2002-2007 MIT and Hewlett-Packard | Compliant to OAI-PMH V 2.0

Home Page Total Visits: 513184 since 06-Feb-2009  Last updated on 21-Apr-2014Webmaster: nopr@niscair.res.in