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|Title:||Prodigiosins: A Novel Family of Immunosuppressants with Anti-cancer Activity|
Sainis, Krishna B
|Abstract:||Prodigiosins (PrGs) are a family of promising therapeutic molecules, isolated mostly from Gram-negative bacteria and characterized by a common pyrryldipyrrylmethene structure with varying side chains. They show a broad spectrum of activities such as anti-microbial, anti-malarial, anti-cancer and immunosuppressive. PrGs are attracting increasing attention due to the ongoing research for less toxic, but effective agents for cancer chemotherapy and immunosuppression for preventing allograft rejection and autoimmunity. Different analogues have been synthesized and evaluated. This review discusses the immunosuppressive and anti-cancer activities of this class of compounds, as both involve inhibition of cell proliferation. The main focus is on the in vitro and in vivo immunosuppressive activity of the different PrGs and the mechanisms involved. PrGs primarily target the T cells, though some effects are observed on other cell types also. Unlike the well-known immunosuppressant cyclosporin A, PrGs do not inhibit the secretion of IL-2 but inhibit the mitogenic signaling from IL-2, suggesting a different mechanism of action. Janus tyrosine kinase 3 (Jak3) that associates with IL-2R upon activation is considered as the molecular target for PrGs. Its restricted expression makes Jak3 as an attractive target for immunosuppressive therapy. However, the available literature suggests that some other pathways are also influenced by the PrGs. These may be important for the anti-cancer activity, as well as immunosuppressive action. Therefore, PrGs appear to be potential candidates for pharmaceutical development as immunosuppressants and also as anti-cancer agents.|
|Appears in Collections:||IJBB Vol.44(5) [October 2007]|
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