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|Title:||Screening marine organisms for antimicrobial activity against clinical pathogens|
|Abstract:||Bacterial resistance to existing antibiotics has led to the search for new therapeutic agents. With this aim, we have evaluated antimicrobial activity of extracts prepared from forty species of marine organisms belonging to different phyla and collected from Mandapam, south-east India, (9<sup>o</sup>16' N; 79<sup>o</sup>12'E) and Kanyakumari coasts, south India, 8<sup>o</sup>4' N; 77<sup>o</sup>34'°E. The extracts were screened against clinical isolates of bacteria including multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains and fungi. The sponge, <i style="">Ectyobatzella</i> <i style="">enigmatica</i>-extract was quite promising as bactericidal agent especially against MDR <i>Streptococcus</i> <i style="">pyogenes</i> and except for its ineffectiveness against <i style="">Pseudomonas</i> <i style="">aeruginosa</i> and <i style="">Klebsiella</i> sp. it was as effective as standard streptomycin against each of the bacteria tested. Besides <i style="">E. enigmatica</i>, <i style="">Spongia officinalis </i>and the echinoderm <i style="">Pentaceraster affinis</i> extracts also exhibited good activity against MDR strains of <i style="">S. pyogenes </i>and <i>Acinetobacter</i><i style=""> </i>sp. An unidentified ascidian extract effectively inhibited the growth of <i style="">Shigella</i> <i style="">flexineri</i> and the soft corals, <i style="">Sinularia sp.(iii) and Sinularia kavarattiensis</i> were weakly active against some of the bacteria tested . Both the sea grasses (<i style="">Halodule</i> sp. and <i style="">Halophila</i> <i style="">ovalis</i>) were antifungal but not anti-bactericidal. Follow up studies showed that except <i style="">Ectyobatzella</i> <i style="">enigmatica where </i>the activity was distributed in all the fractions, the activity of the other extracts were concentrated mainly in the low polar hexane and chloroform fractions. Among the 7 fungal pathogens used in the study, <i style="">Fusarium</i> sp. was sensitive at varying degrees to 12 marine extracts while 17 extracts were weakly fungicidal against <i style="">Nocardia</i> sp. The extracts were practically inactive towards the remaining fungal strains. The standard antibiotic (ketoconazole) used was moderately effective only against <i style="">Cryptococcus neoformans</i> and <i style="">Aspergillus niger.</i>|
|ISSN:||0975-1033 (Online); 0379-5136 (Print)|
|Appears in Collections:||IJMS Vol.40(3) [June 2011]|
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