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|Title:||<i>Xenorhabdus </i>: A potential nano-pharmaceutical perspective|
|Abstract:||<i>Xenorhabdus </i>spp. and <i>Photorhabdus </i>spp. are Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae which are found in mutualistic symbiosis with Entomopathogenic Nematodes (EPNs) of the families of the Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae, respectively. These bacteria produce secondary metabolites that have antibiotic activity against a wide range of bacterial and fungal species including human pathogenic fungi and yeasts and multi-drug resistant human pathogenic bacteria. More than 30 bioactive compounds of diverse chemical structures had been identified which have a broad range of bioactivities of medicinal and agricultural interest, such as antibiotic, antimycotic, insecticidal, nematicidal, antiulcer, antineoplastic and antiviral. Their antibiotic activity against a wide variety of microorganisms including Gram positive <i>Micrococc</i>us, <i>Staphylococcus </i>and <i>Bacillus</i>, Gram negative <i>Escherichia, Shigella, Enterobacter, Serratia, Proteuserwinia, Flavobacterium </i>and <i>Pseudomonas </i>and the yeasts <i>Candida </i>and <i>Saccharomyces </i>is already known. Some biotoxins with strong antimycotic activity against a range of fungi including <i>Botrytis cinera, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Mucor piriformis, Pythium coloratum,</i> <i>Pythium ultimum, Penicillium </i>spp. <i>Trichoderma pseudokingii, </i>had also been reported. <i>Xenorhabdus </i>synthesizes and secretes broad spectral antibiotics as well as species-specific bacteriocins. An antimicrobial protein (Xenoprotec) produced from <i>Xenorhabdus, </i>had a great effect on <i>Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Pseudomonas </i>and <i>Enterococcus</i> <i>faecalis </i>which are potential human pathogens. Some antibacterial proteins effective against <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> [Penicillin Resistant Strains (PRS) and Methicillin Resistant Strains (MRS)] and <i>Pseudomonas fluorescence </i>(PRS), which probably constitute a group of new generation antibiotics. <i>Xenorhabdus </i>showed potent cytotoxicity against a wide range of cancerous cells from lung, colon, prostate, skin, renal, breast and cervical, and found to be a potent preventative of the effects of a carcinogen on normal rat tracheal epithelial cells. Xenoprotec biotoxins may prove to be a boon for medical and pharmaceutical industries as novel eco-friendly costeffective antimicrobial agents effective in nano-doses, unlike other available drugs. Experiments had been conducted on rat, rabbit and other animal models throughout the world and may extend to humans, thus may open vistas for nano-pharmacology.|
|ISSN:||0975-2412 (Online); 0771-7706 (Print)|
|Appears in Collections:||BVAAP Vol.18(1) [June 2010]|
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